As schools adjust to the expectations of the twenty-first century, not only has there has been a call for new conceptions of leadership and leadership preparation (Bezzina, 2012; Caldwell & Spinks, 2013; Dempster et al., 2011; Levin, 2013; Macpherson, 2009; Schleicher, 2012 in McCulla & Degenhardt, 2016, p.559) but the expectations for today’s school leaders have never been more ambitious (Robinson, 2011, in McCulla & Degenhardt, 2016, p.558). The call is for leaders who are instructional leaders who can promote better academic outcomes for students, who also have a capacity to build and sustain transformational cultures (Day & Sammons, 2013; Hattie, 2009; Robinson et al., 2009 in McCulla & Degenhardt, 2016, p.559).
‘We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.’ - Martin Luther King (Clarke, Malcolm, Brain & Malcolm, p.183)
Most educators today agree that education involves more than just the transmission of knowledge and skills in relevant subject areas. It is a form of preparation for life and citizenship in a particular society. This was similar in early Greek society. Teaching was much broader than content and subjects. It meant simultaneously providing 'schooling', 'culturing' and 'character formation’. It involved a process of leading a student from boyhood into manhood, and helping him to find his true humanity and become a citizen (Cairney, 2011, p.65).